The Various Effects of Nigella Sativa on Multiple Body Systems in Human and Animals

Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi, Mohd Hezmee Mohd Noor, Noor Farhana Bachek, Hafandi Ahmad, Abdul Wahid Haron, Md Sabri Mohd Yusoff, Mohammed Ali Rajion

Abstract


Nigella sativa (Black seeds) has been recognized as one of the most popular herbs in many parts of the world for centuries. It was used in the world as folk medicine to cure different kinds of diseases. This plant has been considered as one of the main sources of nutrition and healthcare for humans as well as animals. It has been perceived as Kalonji; it is a southwest Asian plant that flowers annually. The seeds and oil of this plant have been used in food; in addition, it has a long history in the making of medicines. In addition to its being a model plant for better realization of gene and chromosome relationship, the plant species is also significant cytogenetically. Plant based system has not been absorbed fully for human health care despite the remarkable advancements in the field of pharmacology. Cumin, as one of the medicinal plants gifted to humans by nature, has a number of potential uses. It has been proved to be a useful herbal medicines that can be used for human health and therefore has been extensively studied and investigated to further discover the advantages of this plant.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdel-Sater, K. A. (2009). Gastroprotective effects of Nigella Sativa oil on the formation of stress gastritis in hypothyroidal rats. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, 1(2): 143-149.

Aftab, A., Asif, H., Mohd, M., Shah, A. K., Abul, K. N., Nasir A.S. & Firoz, A. (2013). A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: a miracle herb. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(5), 337-352.

Aggarwal, B. B., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Harikumar, K. B., Tharakan, S. T., Sung, B. and Anand, P. (2008). Potential of spice-derived phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Journal of Planta Medica, 74(13): 1560-1569.

Ahmed, Z. A. (2010). Protective effect of Nigella sativa oil against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(2): 46-55.

Akhtar, M. S., Nasir, Z. and Abid, A. R. (2003). Effect of feeding powdered Nigella sativa L. seeds on poultry egg production and their suitability for human consumption. Journal of Veterinarski Arhiv, 73(3): 181-190.

Al-Asadi, A.H. (2000). The effect of lectins isolated from Nigella sativa Linn. In glucose, cholesterol and serum protein levels. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology / College of Veterinary Medicine –University of Baghdad.

Al-Attar, A. M. and Al-Taisan, W. A. A. (2010). Preventive effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on Sprague Dawley rats exposed to diazinon. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(5): 957-968.

Al-Awadi, F. M. and Gumaa, K. A. (1987). Studies on the activity of individual plants of an antidiabetic plant mixture. Acta Diabetologica Latina, 24(1): 37-41.

Al-Awadi, F. M., Fatania, H. and Shamte, U. (1991). The effect of a plants mixture extract on liver gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Research (Edinburgh, Scotland), 18(4), 163-168.

Al-Awadi, F. M., Khattar, M. A. and Gumaa, K. A. (1985). On the mechanism of the hypoglycaemic effect of a plant extract. Diabetologica, 28(7): 432-434.

Al-Duri, S.A. (1998). Purification and characterization of medically important lectines from Nigella sativa L. seeds. Ph. D. Thesis, Education College – University of Baghdad.

Al‐Gaby, A. M. A. (1998). Amino acid composition and biological effects of supplementing broad bean and corn proteins with Nigella sativa (black cumin) cake protein. Food/Nahrung Journal, 42(5): 290-294.

Al-Ghamdi, M. S. (2001). The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of Nigella sativa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76(1): 45-48.

Al-Hader, A., Aqel, M. and Hasan, Z. (1993). Hypoglycemic effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds. Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology, 31(2): 96-100.

Ali, B. H. and Blunden, G. (2003). Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytotherapy Research, 17(4): 299-305.

Al-Jishi, S. A. A. (2000). A study the effect of Nigella sativa on blood hemoststic functions. M.Sc. thesis. King Fasial University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Jishi, S. A. and Abuo Hozaifa, B. (2000). A study the effect of Nigella sativa on blood hemostatic functions in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 85(1): 7-14.

Al-Khalaf, M. I. and Ramadan, K. S. (2013). Antimicrobial and Anti-cancer Activity of Nigella sativa oil-A Review. Australian Journal of Basic Applied Science, 7: 505-514.

Al-Mayali, H.K. (2007). The use of microbial Alefittez black seed in reducing the toxicity of cadmium chloride on the reproductive system in male rat’s efficiency eggs. PhD. Thesis, College of Education - University of Qadisiyah.

Al-Naggar, T. B., Gómez-Serranillos, M. P., Carretero, M. E. and Villar, A. M. (2003). Neuropharmacological activity of Nigella sativa L. extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88(1): 63-68.

Al-Okaily, B. N., Mohammed, R. S., Al-Mzain, K. A. and Khudair, K. K. (2012). Effect of Flavonoids Extracted from Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Vitamin E in Ameliorating Hepatic Damage Induced by Sodium Nitrate in adult male rats. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 36(2):172-181.

Al-Roubaee, F.S. (2006). Effect of Nigella sativa, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Quercus infectoria Plant extracts in viability and growth of Ecchinococcus granulosus protoscolecws from sheep origin in vitro and in vivo. M. Sc. Thesis, science, biology, College of Education, Mosul University.

Al-Sa'aidi, J. A. A., Al-Khuzai, A. L. D. and Al-Zobaydi, N. F. H. (2009). Effect of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility in male rats. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 23: Supplement II: 123-128.

Alsaif, M. A. (2008). Effect of Nigella sativa oil on metabolic responses to prolonged systemic injury in rats. Journal of Biological Sciences, 8(6): 974-983.

Al-Zamily, H. A. A. (2008). The impact of black bean seeds Nigella sativa L. In some physiological traits and sperm in male sheep Awassi. PhD Thesis. (Collage of Veterinary Medicine-Baghdad University, Iraq).

Al-Zubiady, N.F.H. (2007). Alcoholic extract of the seeds of black bean effect (Nigella Sativa L.) fertility in male rats. M.Sc. Thesis, (Collage of Veterinary Medicine-Al- Qadisiyah University, Iraq).

Al-Zuhairy, R. G. M. (2012). The phototherapeutic effect of traditional crude oil of Nigella sativa on male reproductive system of albino mice treated with low toxic dose of paracetamol. Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal, 9(1): 229-237.

Amin, K. A. and Nagy, M. A. (2009). Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, 1(1): 1-14.

Ansari, A. A., Hassan, S., Kenne, L. and Wehler, T. (1988). Structural studies on a saponine isolated from Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry Journal, 27(12): 3977-3979.

Aqel, M. and Shaheen, R. (1996). Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 52(1): 23-26.

Atta, M. B. (2003). Some characteristics of Nigella (Nigella sativa L.) seed cultivated in Egypt and its lipid profile. Food Chemistry Journal, 83(1): 63-68.

Atta-Ur-Rahman, A., Malik, S., Hasan, S.S., Chudhary, M.N. and Clardy, J. (1995). Nigellidine‐A New Indazole Alkaloid from the Seeds of Nigella sativa. Journal of Cheminformatics, 26(30).

Ayed, A. L. and Talal, Z. (2011). Long-term effects of Nigella sativa L. oil on some physiological parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus,1: 46-53.

Badary, O. A. (1999). Thymoquinone attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67(2): 135-142.

Badary, O. A., Abdel-Naim, A. B., Abdel-Wahab, M. H. and Hamada, F. M. (2000). The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Toxicology, 143(3): 219-226.

Badary, O. A., AI-Shabanah, O. A., Nagi, M. N., AI-Rikabi, A. C. and Elmazar, M. M. A. (1999). Inhibition of benzo (a) pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 8(5): 435-440.

Badary, O. A., Nagi, M. N., Al-Shabanah, O. A., Al-Sawaf, H. A., Al-Sohaibani, M. O. and Al-Bekairi, A. M. (1997). Thymoquinone ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rodents and potentiates its antitumor activity. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 75(12): 1356-1361.

Bailey, C. J., and Day, C. (1989). Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes care Journal, 12(8): 553-564.

Bamosa, A. O., Ali, B. A. and Al-Hawsawi, Z. A. (2002). The effect of thymoquinone on blood lipids in rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 46(2): 195-201.

Bamosa, A. O., Ali, B. A. and Sowayan, S. A. (1997). Effect of oral ingestion Nigella sativa seeds on some blood parameters. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 5(2-3): 126-129.

Boskabady, M. H., Mohsenpoor, N. and Takaloo, L. (2010). Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Phytomedicine, 10(17): 707-713.

Boskabady, M. H., Shafei, M. N. and Parsaee, H. (2005). Effects of aqueous and macerated extracts from Nigella sativa on guinea pig isolated heart activity. Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 60(12): 943-948.

Chakravarty, H. L. (1976). Plant wealth of Iraq (a dictionary of economic plants): vol. 1. Baghdad: Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform xiv, 506p.-illus., col. illus..(Ara) Icones. Geog, 2.

Chakravarty, N. (1993). Inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by Nigellone. Annals of Allergy, 70(3): 237-242.

Daba, M.H. and Abdel-Rahman, M.S. (1998). Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicology Letters, 95(1): 23-29.

De-Tommasi, N., Autore, G., Bellino, A., Pinto, A., Pizza, C., Sorrentino, R. and Venturella, P. (2000). Antiproliferative Triterpene saponine from Traversie p almata. Journal of Natural Products, 63(3): 308-314.

Drozed, A. G., Komissarenko, F. N. and Litvinenko, E. A. (1970). Coumarins of some species of Ranunaulaceae family. Farm ZH Journal, 25(4): 57-60.

Dwivedi, S. N. (2003). Ethnobotanical studies and conservational strategies of wild and natural resources of Rewa district of Madhys Pradesh. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 27(1): 233-234.

El Mezayen, R., El Gazzar, M., Nicolls, M. R., Marecki, J. C., Dreskin, S. C. and Nomiyama, H. (2006). Effect of thymoquinone on cyclooxygenase expression and prostaglandin production in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Immunology letters, 106(1): 72-81.

El-Dakhakhny, M., Barakat, M., El-Halim, M. A. and Aly, S. M. (2000). Effects of Nigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol induced ulcer in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72(1): 299-304.

El-Faham, S. Y. (1994). Comparative studies on chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its cake (defatted meal). Journal of Agricultural Science, Mansoura University. (Egypt).

El-Gaafarawy, A. M., Zaki, A. A., El-Sedfy, R. and El-Khenawy, K. H. I. (2003). Effect of feeding Nigella sativa cake on digestibility, nutritive value and reproductive performance of Frisian Iranian cows and Immuno activity of their offspring. In Proceeding of The 9th Conference on Animal Nutrition, October, Egyptian Journal of Nutrition Feeds, 6: 539-549.

El-Kadi, A. and Kandil, O. (1986, November). Effect of Nigella sativa (the black seed) on immunity. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Islamic Medicine, Kuwait. Bulletin Islamic Medicine, 4: 344-352.

Ellmer, M., & Andersson, S. (2004). Inbreeding depression in Nigella degenii (Ranunculaceae): fitness components compared with morphological and phenological characters. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 165(6), 1055-1061.

El-Naggar, A. M. and El-Deib, A. M. (1992). A study of some biological activities of Nigella sativa (black seeds)" Habat El Baraka. Egyptian Society of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 11(2): 781-800.

El-Naggar, T., Gómez-Serranillos, M. P., Palomino, O. M., Arce, C. and Carretero, M. E. (2010). Nigella sativa L. seed extract modulates the neurotransmitter amino acids release in cultured neurons in vitro. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 398312-398312.

El-Shabrawy, O. A. and Nada, S. A. (1996). Biological evaluation of multicomponent tea used as hypoglycemic in rats. Fitoterapial, 67(2): 99-102.

El-Tahir, K. E. D. H. and Bakeet, D. M. (2006). The black seed Nigella sativa Linnaeus-A mine for multi cures: a plea for urgent clinical evaluation of its volatile oil. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 1(1): 1-19.

El-Tahir, K. E., Al-Tahir, A. Y. and Ageel, A. M. (1999). Pharmacological Studies on Sesame and Nigella sativa Fixed Oils: Effect on the Sensitivities of the Adrenoreceptors, Baroreceptors, Platelets and the Uterus of the Rat. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 7(4): 205-215.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., El-Najjar, N. and Schneider-Stock, R. (2006). The medicinal potential of black seed (Nigella sativa) and its components. Lead Molecules from Natural Products: Discovery and New Trends, 2, 133.

Ghoneim, M. T., El-Gindy, A. R., El-Alami, R., Shoukry, E. and Yaseen, S. (1982, November). Possible effect of some extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds on blood coagulation system and fibrinolytic activity. In Proceeding of 2nd International Conference on Islamic Medicine, Kuwait (pp. 528-35).

Ghosheh, O.A.; Houdi, A.A. and Crooks, P.A. (1999). High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the pharmacologically active quinines and related compounds in the oil of black seed (Nigella sativa Linn.). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 19: 757-762.

Gilani, A. H., Aziz, N., Khurram, I. M., Chaudhary, K. S. and Iqbal, A. (2001). Bronchodilator, spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activities of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji): a traditional herbal product with multiple medicinal uses. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 51(3): 115-120.

Gilani, A.H., Jabeen, Q. and Asad Ullah Khan, M. (2004). A review of medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Nigella sativa. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7(4): 441-451.

Gray, J. D. (2013). Rasullulah is my doctor. PTS Islamika Sdn Bhd: Kuala Lumpur.

Gupta, M., Mazumder, U. K., Kumar, T. S., Gomathi, P. and Kumar, R. S. (2004). Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective effects of Bauhinia racemosa against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 3(1): 12-20.

Hailat, N., Al-Kahil, S., Alkofahi, A., Lafi, S., Al-Ani, F., Al-Darraji, A. and Bataineh, Z. (1998). Effects of Nigella sativa extracts on antibody response of rats vaccinated with Brucella vaccine (Rev-1). Pharmaceutical Biology Journal, 36(3): 217-221.

Hajra, N. (2011). Nigella sativa: the miraculous herb. Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 44(1), 44-48.

Halamova, K., Kokoska, L., Flesar, J., Sklenickova, O., Svobodova, B., & Marsik, P. (2010). In vitro antifungal effect of black cumin seed quinones against dairy spoilage yeasts at different acidity levels. Journal of Food Protection®, 73(12), 2291-2295.

Halawani, E. (2009). Antibacterial activity of thymoquinone and thymohydroquinones of Nigella sativa L. and their interaction with some antibiotics. Advances in Biological Research, 3(5-6): 148-152.

Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. C. (1984). Lipid peroxidation, oxygen radicals, cell damage, and antioxidant therapy. The Lancet Journal, 323(8391): 1396-1397.

Hamad, Z.M. (2012). Protective effect Ethanol extract of Nigella sativa. L on hepatic damage induced by naphthalene in male rats. Journal of Al-Qadisiya for Pure Science, 17(2):1-10.

Haq, A., Abdullatif, M., Lobo, P. I., Khabar, K. S., Sheth, K. V. and Al-Sedairy, S. T. (1995). Nigella sativa: effect on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity. Immunopharmacology, 30(2): 147-155.

Haq, A., Lobo, P.I., Al-Tufail, M., Rama, N.R. and Al-Sedairy, S.T. (1999). Immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa proteins fractionated by ion exchange chromatography. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 21(4): 283–295.

Hassan, M. I., Mabrouk, G. M., Shehata, H. H. and Aboelhussein, M. M. (2012). Antineoplastic Effects of Bee Honey and Nigella sativa on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 11(4): 354-363.

Hassanin, N. I. and Hassan, F. M. (1996). A preliminary study on the effect of Nigella sativa L. seeds on hypoglycemia. Veterinary Medical Journal (Egypt), 44:966-708.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Parvardeh, S. (2004). Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Phytomedicine, 11(1): 56-64.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Parvardeh, S., Nassiri-Asl, M. and Mansouri, M. T. (2005). Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, 11(4): 106-110.

Houghton, P. J., Zarka, R., De las Heras, B. and Hoult, J. R. (1995). Fixed oil of Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta Medica Journal, (61): 33-6.

Ilaiyaraja, N., & Khanum, F. (2010). Nigella sativa L.: A review of the therapeutic applications. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology, 4(2), 1-8.

Islam, M. H., Ahmad, I. Z. and Salman, M. T. (2013). Antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa seed in various germination phases on clinical bacterial strains isolated from human patients. E3 Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, 4(1): 8-13.

Janfaza, S. and Janfaza, E. (2012). The study of pharmacologic and medicinal valuation of thymoquinone of oil of Nigella sativa in the treatment of diseases. Annals of Biological Research, 3(4):1953-1957.

Juma, F. T. and Hayfaa, M. A. (2011). A: The effects of Nigella sativa oil administration on some physiological and histological values of reproductive aspects of rats. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 35: 52-60.

Kamal, A., Arif, J. M. and Ahmad, I. Z. (2010). Potential of Nigella sativa L. seed during different phases of germination on inhibition of bacterial growth. Journal of Biotechnology Pharmaceutical Research, 1(1): 09-13.

Keshri, G., Singh, M. M., Lakshmi, V. and Kamboj, V. P. (1995). Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Nigella sativa in rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 39, 59-62.

Khan, M. A. U., Ashfaq, M. K., Zuberi, H. S., Mahmood, M. S. and Gilani, A. H. (2003). The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytotherapy Research Journal, 17(2): 183-186.

Khanna, T., Zaidi, F. A. and Dandiya, P. C. (1993). CNS and analgesic studies on Nigella sativa. Fitoterapia, 5: 407-410.

Khuder, S.I. (2012). The effect of Nigella sativa oil and some antibiotics on bacteria isolated from wound infection in hospitals. College of Basic Education Researches Journal, 12(1): 707-715.

Kumara, S.S. and Huat, B.T. (2001) Extraction, isolation and characterization of anti-tumour principl, alpha-hedrin from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. Planta Medica, 67(1): 29-32.

Lee, K. J., Woo, E. R., Choi, C. Y., Shin, D. W., Lee, D. G., You, H. J. and Jeong, H. G. (2004). Protective effect of acteoside on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Life Sciences Journal, 74(8): 1051-1064.

Mahmoud, M. R., El-Abhar, H. S. and Saleh, S. (2002). The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79(1): 1-11.

Mansour, M. A. (2000). Protective effects of thymoquinone and desferrioxamine against hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in mice. Life Sciences Journal, 66(26): 2583-2591.

Mansour, M.A., Nagi, M.N., El-Khatib, A.S. and Al-Bekairi, A.M. (2002). Effects of thymoquinone on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and DT-diaphorase in different tissues of mice: a possible mechanism of action. Cell Biochemistry Function, 20(2): 143-151.

Mohamed, A. M., Metwally, N. M. and Mahmoud, S. S. (2005). Sativa seeds against Schistosoma mansoni different stages. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 100(2): 205-211.

Mohammad, M. A., Mohamad, M. M. and Dradka, H. (2009). Effects of black seeds (Nigella sativa) on spermatogenesis and fertility of male albino rats. Research Journal Medical Science, 4(2): 386-390.

Mohammed, A. K. (2010). Ameliorative effect of black seed (Nigella sativa L) on the toxicity of aluminum in rabbits. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 34(2): 110-116.

Mohammed, M. J., Mahmood, M. T. and Yaseen, J. M. (2009). Biological effect of saponins isolated from Nigella sativa (seeds) on growth of some bacteria. Tikrit Journal Pure Science, 14(2), 30-33.

Morikawa, T., Xu, F., Ninomiya, K., Matsuda, H. and Yoshikawa, M. (2004). Nigellamines A3, A4, A5, and C, new dolabellane-type diterpene alkaloids, with lipid metabolism-promoting activities from the Egyptian medicinal food black cumin. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 52(4): 494-497.

Mouhajir, F., Pedersen, J. A., Rejdali, M. and Towers, G. H. N. (1999). Antimicrobial thymohydroquinones of Moroccan Nigella sativa seeds detected by electron spin resonance. Pharmaceutical Biology Journal, 37(5): 391-395.

Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W. (2003). Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry. 26th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York. Pp. 190-241.

Nagi, M. N., Alam, K. and Badary, O. A. (1999). Thymoquinone Protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life, 47(1): 143-159.

Nair, S. C., Salomi, M. J., Panikkae, B. and Panikkar, K. R. (1991). Modulatory effects of Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 31(1): 75-83.

Najmi, A., Haque, S. F., Naseeruddin, M. and Khan, R. A. (2008). Effect of Nigella Sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 16: 85-87.

Namba, T., Tsunezuka, M., Dissanayake, D. M. R. B., Polaptiya, U., Saito, K., Kakiuchi, N. and Hattori, M. (1985). Studies on Dental Caries Prevention by Traditional Medicines (Part VII): Screening of Ayurvedic Medicines for Anti-plaque Action. Shoyakugaku Zasshi Journal, 39(2): 146-153.

Nergiz, C. and Ötleş, S. (1993). Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seeds. Food Chemistry Journal, 48(3): 259-261.

Paarakh, P. M. (2010). Nigella sativa Linn.–A comprehensive review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 1(4): 409-429.

Perveen, T., Haider, S., Kanwal, S. and Haleem, D. J. (2009). Repeated administration of Nigella sativa decreases 5-HT turnover and produces anxiolytic effects in rats. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 22(2): 139-144.

Potter, J., Topping, D. and Oakenfull, D. (1979). Soya, saponins, and plasma-cholesterol. The Lancet Journal, 313(8109): 223.

Qidwai, W., Hamza, H. B., Qureshi, R. and Gilani, A. (2009). Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(6): 639-644.

Rajsekhar, S. and Kuldeep, B. (2011). Pharmacognosy and pharmacology of Nigella sativa-A review. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2(11): 36-39.

Randhawa, M. A. and Al-Ghamdi, M. S. (2002). A review of the pharmaco-therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 41(2): 1-10.

Randhawa, M. A. and Alghamdi, M. S. (2011). Anticancer activity of Nigella sativa (black seed)—a review. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 39(06): 1075-1091.

Riaz, M., Syed, M., & Chaudhary, F. M. (1996). Chemistry of the medicinal plants of the genus Nigella (Family-Ranunculaceae). Hamdard Med, 39, 40-45.

Riaz. M., Syed, M. and Chaudhary, F.M. (1996). Chemistry of the medicinal Plants of the genus Nigella (family-Ranunculaceae). Hamdard Medicus Journal, 39(2): 40-45.

Rifat-uz-Zaman, M. S. A. and Khan, M. S. (2004). Gastroprotective and anti-secretory effect of Nigella sativa seed and its extracts in indomethacin-treated rats. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7(6): 995-1000.

Rifqi, M. Z. (2012). Ibnu qayyim al-jauziah al tibb an nabawiy berubat mengikut nabi s.a.w terapi bagi orang islam. Jasmin Enterprise: Kuala Lumpur.

Rogozhin, E. A., Oshchepkova, Y. I., Odintsova, T. I., Khadeeva, N. V., Veshkurova, O. N., Egorov, T. A. & Salikhov, S. I., (2011). Novel antifungal defensins from Nigella sativa L. seeds. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49(2), 131-137.

Sagesaka, Y. M., Uemura, T., Suzuki, Y., Sugiura, T., Yoshida, M., Yamaguchi, K. and Kyuki, K. (1996). [Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions of tea-leaf saponin]. Yakugaku zasshi. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 116(3): 238-243.

Samantha, S., Nalinie, W., Ira, T., Neelakanthi, R. and Mayuri, G. (2003). Protection against diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa. Journal of Carcinogenesis, 2: 6-18.

Sawsan, A.B. and Somia, M. (1992). Effect of Nigella sativa extract on experimental giardiasis. The New Egyptian Journal of Medicine, 7(1): 1-3.

Sayed, M.D. (1980). Traditional medicine in healthcare. Journal of Ethanopharmacology, 2(1):19-22. Sharma, N. K., Ahirwar, D., Jhade, D. and Gupta, S. (2009). Medicinal and pharmacological potential of Nigella sativa: a review. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, (7): 11.

Shih, I. M., Chiang, H. S., Yang, L. L. and Wang, T. L. (1990). Antimotility effects of Chinese herbal medicines on human sperm. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi, 89(6): 466-469.

Singh, L. W. (2011). Traditional medicinal plants of Manipur as anti-diabetics. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(5): 677-687.

Suresh Kumar, T. V., Negi, P. S. and Udaya Sankar, K. (2010). Antibacterial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Seed Extracts. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1(2): 96-100.

Tasawar, Z., Siraj, Z., Ahmad, N. and Lashari, M. H. (2011). The effects of Nigella sativa (Kalonji) on lipid profile in patients with stable coronary artery disease in Multan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal Nutrition, 10(2): 162-167.

Tawfeek, F. K., Ahmed, S. M. and Kakel, S. J. (2006). Effect of Nigella sativa oil treatment on the sex organs and sperm characters in rats exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 34(1): 2-8.

Tisserand, R. and Balacs, T. (1995). Essential Oil Safety. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh, Pp: 108-110.

Uslu, C., Taysi, S. and Bakan, N. (2003). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in experimental maxillary sinusitis. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 33(1): 18-22.

Varghese, E. S. V. D. (1996). Applied ethnobotany, a case study among the Kharias of Central India. New Delhi: DEEP Publications xix.

Zahoor, A., Ghafoor, A. and Aslam, M. (2004). Nigella sativa – a potential commodity in crop diversification traditionally used in healthcare. Project on introduction of medicinal herbs and spices as crops. Ministry of Food. Agriculture and Livestock Education, Islamabad, Pakistan, Pp: 280-295.

Zaoui, A., Cherrah, Y., Alaoui, K., Mahassine, N., Amarouch, H. and Hassar, M. (2002). Effects of Nigella sativa fixed oil on blood homeostasis in rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79(1): 23-26.

Zohary, M. (1983). The genus Nigella (Ranunculaceae)—a taxonomic revision. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 142(1-2), 71-105.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews, (e-ISSN: 2462-2028, ISSN: 2636-9141) published by Universiti Putra Malaysia Press