Biochemical Biomarkers: Fish Cholinesterase Biosensor for Heavy Metals Detection in Aquatic Pollution Monitoring

Ain Aqilah Basirun, Mohd Khalizan Sabullah, Mohd Yunus Abd Shukor, Nur Adeela Yasid, Nor Aripin Shamaan, Siti Aqlima Ahmad

Abstract


Recently, the contamination of heavy metals towards the environment especially in aquatic system has drastically increased. Heavy metals are able to transform into persistent metallic compound in which it can be accumulated within the organisms’ body system, disrupting the food chain and eventually threatened the human life. The occurrence of heavy metals spillage in the rivers and lakes are due to the careless disposal of excess heavy metals used for human activities. The accumulation of heavy metals in water system will affect all aquatic organisms especially fish. The toxicity of copper in fish can be determined by several changes in the fish under treatment with heavy metals sub-lethal concentration, LC50 within 96-hours period of acute exposure. Therefore, fish can be considered as a high potential biomarker for monitoring heavy metals pollution in aquatic system. Several selective organs are highly sensitive to the xenobiotic pollution and express changes to the exposure. One of the most potential biomarker is the biochemical biomarker of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition by heavy metals in fish has been well studied in pollution monitoring recently. Thus, this paper gives an overview of the manipulation of fish as a biomarker of heavy metals through enzymatic reaction which have proven to be very useful in the environmental pollution monitoring.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Ghais, S.M. (2013). Acetylcholinesterase, gluthathione and hepatosomatic index as potential biomarkers of sewage pollution and depuration of fish. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 74, 183-186.

Ali, M.F., Heng, L.Y., Ratnam, W., Nais, J., & Ripin, R. (2004). Metal distribution and contamination of the Mamut river, Malaysia, caused by copper mine discharge. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 73, 535-542.

Ali, B.N.M., Lin, C.Y., Cleophas, F., Abdullah, M.H., & Musta, B. (2015). Assessment of heavy metals contamination in Mamut river sediments using quality guidelines and geochemical indices. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 187: doi 10.1007/s10661-014-4190-y.

Araújo, M.C.D., Assis, C.R.D., Silvaa, L.C., Machadoc, D.C., Silvaa, K.C.K., Limaa, A.V.A., Luiz B.C.J., Souza, R.D.S., & Oliveiraa M.B.M.D. Brain acetylcholinesterase of jaguar cichlid (Parachromis managuensis): From physicochemical and kinetic properties to itspotential as biomarker of pesticides and metal ions. Aquatic toxicology, 177, 182-189.

Assis, C.R.D. Castro, P.F. Amaral, I.P.G. Maciel Carvalho, E.V.M. Carvalho Jr, L.B., & Bezerra, R.S. (2010). Characterization of acetylcholinesterase from the brain of the Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and in vitro effect of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 29, 2243–2248.

Authman, M.M.N., Zaki, M.S., Khallaf, E.A., & Abbas, H.H. (2015). Use of fish as bio-indicator of the effects of heavy metals pollution. Journal of Aquaculture Research Development, 6(328): doi:10.4172/2155-9546.1000328.

Avigliano, E., Schenone, N.F., Volpedo, A.V., Goessler, W., & Cirelli, A.F. (2015). Heavy metals and trace elements in muscle of silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) and water from different environments (Argentina): aquatic pollution and consumption effect approach. Science of The Total Environment, 506(507), 102-108.

Baskaran, G., Masdor, N.A., Syed, M.A., & Shukor, M.Y. (2013). an inhibitive enzyme assay to detect mercury and zinc using protease from Coriandrum sativum. The Scientific World Journal, 2013: doi:10.1155/2013/678356.

Chatonnet, A., & Lockridge, O. (1989). Comparison of butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase.

Biochemical Journal, 260, 625-634.

Chen, H., Tenga, Y, Lu, S., Wang, Y., & Wang, J. (2015). Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China. Science of Total Environment, 512, 143-153.

David, M., & Kartheek, R.M. (2016). In vivo studies on hepato-renal impairments in freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio following exposure to sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Environmental Science Pollution Research, 23, 722-733.

De Lima, D., Roque, G.M., & Alves de Almeida, E. (2013). In vitro and in vivo inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase by metals in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Marine Environmental Research, 91, 45-51.

Doaa, M.M., & Hanan, H.A. (2013). Histological changes in selected organs of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to doses of lead acetate. Journal of Life Science and Biomedicine, 3(3), 256-263.

El-Gazzar, A.M., Ashry, K.E., & El-Sayed Y.S. (2014). Physiological and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Freshwater Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus L., Exposed to Sublethal Doses of Cadmium. Alexendria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 40, 29-43.

Ezeonyejiaku, C.D., Obiakor, M.O., & Ezenwelu, C.O. (2011). Toxicity of copper sulphate and behavioural locomotor response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) species. Online Journal of Animaland Feed Research, 1(4), 130-134.

Falugi, C., & Aluigi, M.G. (2012). Early appearance and possible functions of non-neuromuscular

cholinesterase activities. Frontier Molecular Neuroscience, 5(54). doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2012.00054.

Fukuto, T.R. (1971). Relationship between the structure of organophosphorus compounds and their activity as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Bulletin of World Health Organisation, 44: 31-42.

Fukuto, T.R. (1990). Mechanism of action of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. Environmental Health Perspectives, 87, 245-254.

Furuta, T., Iwata, N., & Kikuchi, K. (2008). Effects of fish size and water temperature on the acute toxicity of copper for Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and Red Sea Bream, Pagrus major. Journal of The World Aquaculture Society, 39(6), 766-773.

Haluzová, I., Modrá, H., Blahová, J., Havelková, M., Široká, Z., & Svobodová, Z. (2011). Biochemical markers of contamination in fish toxicity tests. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 4(2), 85-89.

Hayat, N.M., Shamaan, N.A., Sabullah, M.K., Shukor, M.Y., Syed, M.A., Khalid, A., Dahalan, F.A.,& Ahmad, S.A. (2016). The use of Lates calcarifer as a biomarker for heavy metals detection. Rediconti Lincei, doi 10.1007/s12210-015-0501-7.

Jomova, K., Baros, S., & Valko, M. (2012). Redox active metal-induced oxidative stress in biological systems. Transition Metal Chemistry, 37, 127-134.

Kaviraj, A., Unlu, E., Gupta, A., & Nemr, A.E. (2014). Biomarkers of environmental pollutants. Biomedical Research International, doi.org/10.1155/2014/806598.

Khati, W., Oualia, K., Mouneyrac, C., & Banaoui, Ali. (2012). Metallothionine in aquatic invertebrates: Their role in metal detoxification and their use in biomonitoring. Energy Procedia, 18, 784-794.

Kumar, M., Kumar, P., & Devi, S. (2015). Toxicity of Copper Sulphate on Behavioural Parameter and Respiratory Surveillance in Freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, 3(1), 22-28.

Lionetto, M. G., Caricato, R., Calisi, A., Giordano, M.A., & Schettino, T. (2013). Acetylcholine as a biomarker in environmental and occupational medicine: New insight and future perspectives. Biomedicine Research International. doi: org/10.1155/2013/321213.

Mashifane, T.B., & Moyo, N.A.G. (2015). Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals to Oreochromis mossambicus fry and fingerlings. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 39(3), 279-285.

Naji, A., Ismail, A., Kamrani, E., & Sohrabi, T. (2014). Correlation of MT levels in livers and gills with heavy metals in wild tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) from the Klang river, Malaysia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 92, 674-679.

Nunes, B. (2011). The use of cholinesterase in ecotoxicology. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-8453-1_2.

Pasha, F. (2013). Enzyme inhibition (AChE) in brain of Oreochromis mossambicus due to pesticidal pollution of herbicide “pursuit”. Egypt Academy Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(1), 97-100.

Ploetz, D.M., Fitts, B.E., & Rice, T.M. (2007). Differential accumulation of heavy metals in muscle and liver of Marine fish, (king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier) from the Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 78, 134-137.

Rakhi, S.F., Reza, A.H.M.M., Hossen, M.S. & Hossain, Z. (2013). Alterations in histopathology features and brain acetylcholinesterase activity in stinging catfish Heteropneutes fossilis exposed to polluted river water. International Aquatic Research, 5, 1-18.

Sabullah, M.K., Ahmad, S.A., Shukor, M.Y., Gansau, A.J., Syed, M.A., Sulaiman, M.R. & Shamaan, N.A. (2015b). Heavy metal biomarker: Fish behaviour, cellular alteration, enzymatic reaction and proteomic approaches. International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 435-454.

Sabullah, M.K., Shukor, M.Y., Sulaiman, M.R., Shamaan, N.A., Syed, M.A., Khalid, A., & Ahmad, S.A. (2014). The effect of copper on the ultrastructure of Puntius javanicus hepatocyte. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 8(15), 245-251.

Scheiber, I.F., Mercer, J.F.B., & Dringen, R. (2014). Metabolism and functions of copper in brain. Progress in Neurobiology, 116, 33-57.

Sevcikova, M., Modra, H., Kruzikova, K., Zitka, O., Hynek, D., Adam, V., Celechovska, O., Kizek, R., & Svobodova, Z. (2013). Effect of metals on metallothionine content in fish from Skalka and Zelivka reservoirs. International Journal of Electrochemical Sciences, 8, 1650-166.

Silva, J.M., Santos, F.L.B., Pereira, H.J.V., Costa, J.G., Santana, A.E.G., Machado, S.S., & De Abreu, F.C. (2015). In vivo and in vitro inhibition of cholinesterase activity in Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) fingerlings by the herbicide trifluralin. Ecotoxicology Environmental Contamination, 10(1), 23-30.

Song, L., Vijver, M.G., Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M., Galloway, T.S., & Tyler, C.R. (2015). A comparative analysis on the in vivo toxicity of copper nanoparticles in three species of freshwater fish. Chemosphere, 139, 181-189.

Sulaiman, F.R., Mustaffa, N.F.S., & Khazaai, S.N.M. (2016). Preliminary assessment of selected metals in agricultural soils in Jengka, Pahang, Malaysia. Environmental Earth Science, 75(223): doi: 10.1007/s12665-015-4926-1.

Taweel, A., Othman, M.S., & Ahmad, A.K. (2011). Heavy metals concentration in different organs of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from selected areas of Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(55), 11582-11586.

Ullah, S., & Zorriehzahra, M.J. (2014). Ecotoxicology: A review of pesticides induced toxicity in fish. Advanced in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3(1), 40-57.

Yen, L.V., & Saibeh, K. (2013). Phytoremediation using Typha angustifolia L. for mine water effluence treatment: Case study of ex-Mamut copper mine, Ranau, Sabah. Borneo Science, 33,16-22.

Yuswir, N.S., Praveena, S.M., Aris, A.Z., Ismail, S.N.S.I., & Hashim, Z. (2015). Health risk assessment of heavy metal in urban surface soil (Klang District, Malaysia). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 95, 80-89.

Zaki, M.S., Mustafa, S.O., & Fawzy, O.O. (2015). Heavy metals in fish (Review). Nature and Science, 13(2), 116-118.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews, (e-ISSN: 2462-2028, ISSN: 2636-9141) published by Universiti Putra Malaysia Press