Comparing Asynchronous and Synchronous Interaction Using Online Technology

Yolanda Lee Lee Hiew, Bee Hoon Tan

Abstract


The move from traditional face-to-face classroom learning to the use of information and communication technology (ICT) has been implemented by universities in Malaysia and abroad vigorously with computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems. These technologies promote interaction among tertiary level students in collaboration where they can have discussions with peers for collaborative tasks by means of posting messages (asynchronous) and instant messaging (synchronous). This review paper focused on comparative studies of asynchronous and synchronous interaction among university students using online tools. The quantitative and qualitative research studies were reviewed preliminarily based on the types of CMC used, looking at the theories, methods, respondents, and findings. This paper also discusses the online tools used for interaction such as Wiki and Skype, and concludes with an understanding of students’ experience of different online systems and tools in their communication that may affect their learning.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alavi, M., Yoo, Y., & Vogel, D. R. (1997). Using information technology to add value to management education. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 1310-1333.

Anderson, T. D., & Garrison, D. R. (1997). New roles for learners at a distance. In C. Gibson (Ed), Distance learners in higher education: Institutional responses for quality outcomes (pp. 97-112). Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.

Augar, N., Raitman, R., & Zhou, W. (2004). Teaching and learning online with wikis. In Beyond the comfort zone: proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference, Perth, 5-8 December (pp.95-104).ASCILITE. Retrieved from http://dro.deakin.edu.au/eserv/DU%3A30005482/zhou-teachingandlearning-2004.pdf

Balaji, M. S., & Chakrabarti, D. (2010). Student interactions in online discussion forum: Empirical research from ‘media richness theory’ perspective. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(1), 1-22.

Biesenbach-Lucas, S. (2003). Asynchronous discussion groups in teacher training classes: Perceptions of native and non-native students. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(3), 24-46.

Boag, P. (2009). 10 things to consider when choosing the perfect CMS. Smashing Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.smashingmagazine.com

Bonk, C. J., Hansen, E. J., Grabner-Hagen, M. M., Lazar, S. A., & Mirabelli, C. (1998). Time to “connect”: Synchronous and asynchronous case-based dialogue among preservice teachers. In C. J. Bonk and K. S. King (Eds), Electronic collaborators: Learner- centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse (pp. 289-314). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association.

Brindley, J., Blaschke, L. M., & Walti, C. (2009). Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3). Retrieved from ttp://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/675/1271?

Bryant, T. (2006). Social software in academia. Educause Quarterly, 29(2), 61.

Černá, M., Poulová, P., & Draessler, J. (2011, September). Software applications in academic setting awareness and satisfaction. In Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL), 2011, 14th International Conference on (pp. 525-531). IEEE.

Chou, C. C. (2002, January). A comparative content analysis of student interaction in synchronous and asynchronous learning networks. In System Sciences, 2002. HICSS. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1795-1803). Retrieved from http://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/hicss/2002/1435/05/14350134b.pdf

Chu, K.W.S., & Kennedy, D. M. (2011). Using online collaborative tools for groups to co-construct knowledge. Online Information Review, 35(4), 581-597.

Cunningham, W. (2002). What is wiki. WikiWikiWeb. Retrieved from http://www. wiki.org/wiki.cgi. Davidson-Shivers, G. V., Muilenburg, L. Y., & Tanner, E. J. (2001). How do students participate in synchronous and asynchronous online discussions? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 25(4), 351-366.

Dewey, J. (1996). Democracy and Education. New York: Free Press.

Eaton, S. E. (2010). How to use Skype in the ESL/EFL classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, 16(11). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Eaton-UsingSkype.html

Elgort, I., Smith, A. G., & Toland, J. (2008). Is wiki an effective platform for group course work? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(2), 195-210.

Embi, M. A. (2011). e-Learning in Malaysian institutions of higher learning: Status, trends and challenges. Keynote Address. Proceedings of the International Lifelong Learning Conference (ICLLL 2011) (pp.14-15). Kuala Lumpur: MOHE

Foote, C. (2008). See Me, Hear Me: Skype in the Classroom. School Library Journal, 54(1), 42-43. Freed, K. (2004). A history of distance learning. Retrieved from http://www.media-visions.com/ed-

distlrn.html

Fryer, W. A. (2014). Skype in the Classroom. Publications Archive of Wesley Fryer, 1 (1).

Garrison, D. R., & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2005). Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning:

Interaction is not enough. The American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 133-148.

Garrison, D. R. (1990). An Analysis and evaluation of audio teleconferencing to facilitate education at a distance. The American Journal of Distance Education, 4(3), 13-24.

Goi, C. L., & Ng, P. Y. (2009). E-learning in Malaysia: Success factors in implementing e-learning program. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2), 237-246.

Haythornthwaite, C. (2001). Exploring multiplexity: Social network structures in a computer-supported distance learning class. The Information Society, 17(3), 211-226.

Hillman, D. C., Willis, D. J., & Gunawardena, C. N. (1994). Learner-interface interaction in distance education: An extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 30-42.

Hiltz, S. R., & Turoff, M. (1978). The network nation: Human communication via computer. Reading, PA: Addison-Wesley.

Howarth, P. (2006). Increasing student interaction. Teaching English. Retrieved from http://ltr.sagepub.com/content/10/3/245.short

Hrastinski, S. (2007). Using chat as a complement to discussion board in small-group online seminars: How is student participation affected? International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 3(4), 483-500.

Hussain, R. M. R. (2004). E-learning in higher education institutions in Malaysia. E-mento, 5(7), 72-75.

Judd, T., Kennedy, G., & Cropper, S. (2010). Using wikis for collaborative learning: Assessing collaboration through contribution. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(3), 341-354.

Karasavvidis, I. (2010). Wiki uses in higher education: Exploring barriers to successful implementation. Interactive Learning Environments, 18(3), 219-231.

Kask, B. (2009). Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication: Tools for Collaboration. Retrieved

from http://sites.wiki.ubc.ca/etec510/Synchronous_and_Asynchronous_Communication: ToolsforCollaboration

Kearsley, G., & Schneiderman, B. (1999). Engagement theory: A framework for technology-based learning and teaching. Retrieved from http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/engage.htm

Kirkwood, A. (2009). E‐learning: you don't always get what you hope for. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18(2), 107-121.

Ko, S., & Rossen, S. (2001). Teaching online: A practical guide. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Koschmann, T., Kelson, A., Feltovich, P., & Barrows, H. (1996). Computer-supported problem based learning: a principled approach to the use of computers in collaborative learning. In T.

Koschmann (Ed.), CSCL theory and practice of an emerging paradigm (pp. 83- 119). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association.

Mabrito, M. (2006). A study of synchronous versus asynchronous collaboration in an online business writing class. The American Journal of Distance Education, 20(2), 93-107.

Macdonald, J. (2003). Assessing online collaborative learning: process and product. Computers & Education, 40, 377-391.

Martin, F., Parker, M., & Deale, D. (2012). Examining interactivity in synchronous virtual classrooms. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(3), 228-261.

Mayadas A. F. (1999). What is ALN? Retrieved from http://www.aln.org/alnweb/aln.htm.

McGreal, R., & Elliott, M. (2008). Technologies of Online Learning (E-learning). In T. Anderson (2008), Thetheory and practice of online learning (pp. 115-135). Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press.

Moore, M. G. (1989). Editorial: Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-7.

Moore, M, G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A systems view. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Mullen, T., Appel, C., & Shanklin, T. (2009). Skype based tandem language learning and web 2.0. Handbook of Research on Web, 2, 101-118.

Ng, E. W., & Detenber, B. H. (2005). The impact of synchronicity and civility in online political discussions on perceptions and intentions to participate. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 10(3). DOI: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2005.tb00252.x

Olson, T., & Wisher, R. A. (2002). The effectiveness of web-based instruction: An initial inquiry. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 3(2). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/103/182?

Repman, J., Zinskie, C., & Carlson, R. D. (2005). Effective use of CMC tools in interactive online learning. Computers in the Schools, 22(1-2), 57-69.

Schullo, S., Venable, M., Barron, A. E., Kromrey, J. D., Hilbelink, A., & Hohlfeld, T. (2005, November). Enhancing online courses with synchronous software: an analysis of strategies

and interactions. In Proceedings of the National Educational Computing Conference, Philadelphia. Retrieved from http://etec.hawaii.edu/otec/classes/645/aera_audio_conference. pdf

Schwier, R. A., & Balbar, S. (2002). The interplay of content and community in synchronous and asynchronous communication: Virtual communication in a graduate seminar. Canadian Journalof Learning and Technology/La revue canadienne de l’apprentissageet de la technologie, 28(2). Retrieved from http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/viewArticle/81

Sivula, M. (2011). Using Skype as an academic tool: Lessons learned. eLearn Magazine, 1-4. Retrieved from http://scholarsarchive.jwu.edu/technology/1

Spencer, D. H., & Spencer, H. (2002). A field study of use of synchronous computer-mediated communication in asynchronous learning networks. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=FE5F825417CD3E69EB30972A73 655864?doi=10.1.1.194.4824&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Tobin, K., & Tippins, D. (1993). Constructivism as a referent for teaching and learning. The practice of constructivism in science education, 1, 3-22.

Tsukamoto, M., Nuspliger, B., & Senzaki, Y. (2009). Using Skype to connect a classroom to the world: Providing students an authentic language experience within the classroom. In CamTESOL Conference on English Language Teaching, 5, 162-168.

Williams, E. A., Duray, R., & Reddy, V. (2006). Teamwork orientation, group cohesiveness, and student learning: a study of the use of teams in online distance education. Journal of Management Education, 30 (4), 592-616

Witney, D., & Smallbone, T. (2011). Wiki work: Can using wikis enhance student collaboration for group assignment tasks? Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 48(1), 101-110.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews, (e-ISSN: 2462-2028, ISSN: 2636-9141) published by Universiti Putra Malaysia Press