Citrus Bent Leaf Viroid

Ying Wei Khoo, Yasir Iftikhar, Lih Ling Kong, Ganesan Vadamalai

Abstract


Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd) from genus Apscaviroid, is one of the widely distributed viroids among the seven citrus viroids. It is comprised of three variants: Citrus viroid-Ia (CVd-Ia) (327 - 329 nucleotides), Citrus viroid-Ib (CVd-Ib) (315 - 319 nucleotides) and Citrus viroid-I-low sequence similarity (CVd-I-LSS) (325 - 330 nucleotides). Virulence of CBLVd totally expressed on citrus plants. Etrog citron (Citrus medica (L.)) coinfected with CBLVd, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) and Citrus viroid-V (CVd-V) showed epinasty, leaf rolling, and stunting. CBLVd has been reported to reduce the canopy proportion and fruit production of citrus trees inserted on trifoliate orange rootstock. Moreover, citrus tree infected with singly CBLVd or in combinations with CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (CVd-II) and CVd-III induced dwarfing have been associated with poor development of the root system. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) amplification have been widely used to detect citrus viroids including CBLVd. As citrus viroids are emerging threats in citrus groves, therefore, this review covers the evolution, geographical distribution and epidemiology, economic impact and symptomatology, host range and transmission, detection, and management will be helpful in formulating the integrated management strategies for CBLVd.

Keywords


CBLVd, citrus, MRT-PCR, RT-PCR, viroids

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashulin, L., Lachman, O., Hadas, R., & Bar-Joseph, M. (1991). Nucleotide sequence of a new viroid species, citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd) isolated from grapefruit in Israel. Nucleic Acids Research, 19(17), 4767.

Al-Harthi, S. A., Al-Sadi, A. M., & Al-Saady, A. A. (2013). Potential of citrus budlings originating in the Middle East as sources of citrus viroids. Crop Protection, 48, 13-15.

Al-Shariqi, R. M., Al-Hammadi, M. S., & Al-Sadi, A. M. (2013). First report of Citrus bent leaf viroid in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(4, Supplement).

Barbosa, C. J., Pina, J. A., Pérez-Panadés, J., Bernad, L., Serra, P., Navarro, L. & Duran-Vila, N. (2005). Mechanical transmission of citrus viroids. Plant Disease, 89(7), 749-754.

Ben-Shaul, A., Guang, Y., Mogilner, N., Hadas, R., Mawassi, M., Gafny, R., & Bar-Joseph, M. (1995). Genomic diversity among populations of two citrus viroids from different graft-transmissible dwarfing complexes in Israel. Phytopathology, 85(3), 359-363.

Bernad, L., & Duran-Vila, N. (2006). A novel RT-PCR approach for detection and characterization of citrus viroids. Molecular and cellular probes, 20(2), 105-113.

Calavan, E. C., Frolich, E. F., Carpenter, J. B., Roistacher, C., & Christiansen, D. W. (1964). Rapid indexing for exocortis of Citrus. Phytopathology, 54(11), 1359-1362.

Cao, M. J., Atta, S., Liu, Y. Q., Wang, X. F., Zhou, C. Y., Mustafa, A., & Iftikhar, Y. (2009). First Report of Citrus bent leaf viroid and Citrus dwarfing viroid from Citrus in Punjab, Pakistan. Plant Disease, 93(8), 840-840.

Cohen, O., Batuman, O., Stanbekova, G., Sano, T., Mawassi, M., & Bar-Joseph, M. (2006). Construction of a multiprobe for the simultaneous detection of viroids infecting citrus trees. Virus Genes, 33(3), 287-292.

Duran-Vila, N., Flores, R., & Semancik, J. S. (1986). Characterization of viroid-like RNAs associated with the citrus exocortis syndrome. Virology, 150(1), 75-84.

Duran-Vila, N., Roistacher, C. N., Rivera-Bustamante, R., & Semancik, J. S. (1988).A definition of citrus viroid groups and their relationship to the exocortis disease.Journal of General Virology, 69(12), 3069-3080.

Ferguson, L., & Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. (Eds.). (2014). Citrus Production Manual (Vol. 3539). UCANR Publications.

Garnsey, S. M., & Muller, G. W. (1988). Efficiency of mechanical transmission of citrus tristeza virus. In Proc. l0th Conf. Intern. Organization Citrus Virol (pp. 46-54).

Hadas, R., Bar‐Joseph, M., & Semancik, J. S. (1989). Segregation of a viroid complex from a graft‐transmissible dwarfing agent source for grapefruit trees. Annals of applied biology, 115(3), 515-520.

Hammond, R. W., & Owens, R. A. (2006). Viroids: New and continuing risks for horticultural and agricultural crops. APSnet Features.

Hashemian, S. B., Serra, P., Barbosa, C. J., Juárez, J., Aleza, P., Corvera, J. M., Lluch, A., Pina, J. A., & Duran-Vila, N. (2009). Effect of a Field-Source Mixture of Citrus Viroids on the Performance of'Nules' Clementine and'Navelina'Sweet Orange Trees Grafted on Carrizo Citrange. Plant Disease, 93(7), 699-707.

Hataya, T., Nakahara, K., Ohara, T., Ieki, H. & Kano, T. (1998). Citrus viroid Ia is a derivative of citrus bent leaf viroid (CVd-Ib) by partial sequence duplications in the right terminal region. Archives of virology, 143(5), 971-980.

Ito, T. (2003). Studies on the distribution and diagnosis of citrus viroids in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 69(6), 421-421.

Ito, T., Ieki, H., & Ozaki, K. (2000). A population of variants of a viroid closely related to citrus viroid-I in citrus plants. Archives of virology, 145(10), 2105-2114.

Ito, T., Ieki, H., & Ozaki, K. (2002). Simultaneous detection of six citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus from citrus plants by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods, 106(2), 235-239.

Ito, T., Ieki, H., Ozaki, K., Iwanami, T., Nakahara, K., Hataya, T., Ito, T., Isaka, M. & Kano, T. (2002). Multiple citrus viroids in citrus from Japan and their ability to produce exocortis-like symptoms in citron. Phytopathology, 92(5), 542-547.

Ito, T., Namba, N., & Ito, T. (2003). Distribution of citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus on citrus trees in Japan using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Journal of general plant pathology, 69(3), 205-207.

Keese, P., & Symons, R. H. (1985). Domains in viroids: evidence of intermolecular RNA rearrangements and their contribution to viroid evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 82(14), 4582-4586.

Malfitano, M., Barone, M., Duran-Vila, N., & Alioto, D. (2005). Indexing of viroids in citrus orchards of Campania, Southern Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 115-121.

Mazhar, M. A., Bagherian, S. A. A., Ardakani, A. S., & Izadpanah, K. (2014). Nucleotide Sequence and Structural Features of Hop Stunt Viroid and Citrus Bent Leaf Viroid Variants from Blighted Citrus Plants in Kohgiluyeh–Boyerahmad Province of Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 16(3), 657-665.

Mohamed, M. E., Hashemian, S. B., Dafalla, G., Bové, J. M., & Duran-Vila, N. (2009). Occurrence and identification of citrus viroids from Sudan. Journal of Plant Pathology, 185-190.

Murcia, N., Serra, P., Olmos, A., & Duran-Vila, N. (2009). A novel hybridization approach for detection of citrus viroids. Molecular and cellular probes, 23(2), 95-102.

Nauer, E. M., Roistacher, C. N., Calavan, E. C., & Carson, T. L. (1988). The effect of citrus exocortis viroid (CEV) and related mild citrus viroids (CV) on field performance of Washington navel orange on two rootstocks. In Proc. 10th Conf. IOCV. IOCV, Riverside (pp. 204-210).

Pagliano, G., Peyrou, M., Del Campo, R., Orlando, L., Gravina, A., Wettstein, R., & Francis, M. (2000). Detection and characterization of citrus viroids in Uruguay. In Proceedings XIV Conference of the Internacional Organization of Citrus Virologist (IOCV). Riverside, CA (pp. 282-288).

Palacio, A., Foissac, X., & Duran-Vila, N. (2000). Indexing of citrus viroids by imprint hybridization: comparison with other detection methods. In Proceedings 14th Conference of the International Organisation of Citrus Virologists IOCV, Riverside (pp. 284-301).

Roistacher, C. N., Bash, J. A., & Semancik, J. S. (1993). Distinct disease symptoms in Poncirus trifoliata induced by three citrus viroids from three specific groups. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the International Organization of Citrus Virologists (Vol. 12, pp. 173-179).

Sano, T., Candresse, T., Hammond, R. W., Diener, T. O., & Owens, R. A. (1992). Identification of multiple structural domains regulating viroid pathogenicity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 89(21), 10104-10108.

Schlemmer, A., Roistacher, C. N., & Semancik, J. S. (1985). A unique, infectious RNA associated with citron showing symptoms typical of citrus exocortis disease. Phytopathology (USA).

Semancik, J. S., Rakowski, A. G., Bash, J. A., & Gumpf, D. J. (1997). Application of selected viroids for dwarfing and enhancement of production of ‘Valencia’orange. Journal of Horticultural Science, 72(4), 563-570.

Serra, P., Barbosa, C. J., Daròs, J. A., Flores, R., & Duran-Vila, N. (2008). Citrus viroid V: molecular characterization and synergistic interactions with other members of the genus Apscaviroid. Virology, 370(1), 102-112.

Targon, M. L. P. N., Carvalho, A. S., Stuchi, E. S., Souza, J. M., Müller, G. W., Borges, K. M., & Machado, M. A. (2005). Hybridization techniques for indexing of citrus viroids in São Paulo State, Brazil. Laranja, 26, 25-38.

Vernière, C., Botella, L., Dubois, A., Chabrier, C., & Duran-Vila, N. (2002). Properties of citrus viroids: symptom expression and dwarfing. In Proceedings of the 15th conference of International Organization of Citrus Virologists. IOCV, Riverside (pp. 240-248).

Vernière, C., Perrier, X., Dubois, C., Dubois, A., Botella, L., Chabrier, C., Bové, J. M. & Duran-Vila, N. (2004). Citrus viroids: symptom expression and effect on vegetative growth and yield of clementine trees grafted on trifoliate orange. Plant Disease, 88(11), 1189-1197.

Vernière, C., Perrier, X., Dubois, C., Dubois, A., Botella, L., Chabrier, C., Bové, J. M. & Vila, N. D. (2006). Interactions between citrus viroids affect symptom expression and field performance of clementine trees grafted on trifoliate orange. Phytopathology, 96(4), 356-368.

Villalobos, W., Rivera, C., & Harnmond, R. W. (1997). Occurrence of citrus viroids in Costa Rica. International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, 45(3), 983-987.

Wu, Q., Cao, M., Su, H., Atta, S., Yang, F., Wang, X., & Zhou, C. (2014). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus viroid I-LSS variants from citrus in Pakistan and China reveals their possible geographic origin. European journal of plant pathology, 139(1), 13-17.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews, (e-ISSN: 2462-2028, ISSN: 2636-9141) published by Universiti Putra Malaysia Press